1) What level of Bloom’s Taxonomy do the Standards align to?
I believe that every level of Bloom’s Taxonomy is aligned with the Standards. For example, in Common Core Standard K.G.4, students are to “analyze and compare two- and three-dimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts, and other attributes.” This applies to the level of Analyzing in Bloom’s Taxonomy where materials are broken down into parts and then determining the relationship between those parts and the overall structure. Another level that is aligned with K.G.1 is Understanding, where students “describe objects in the environment using names of shapes, and describe the relative positions of these objects using terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind, and next to.” Students will be able to construct meaning from oral, written, or graphic messages through classifying, summarizing, and inferring which progresses their ability to apply these procedures in Geometry and other mathematical applications.
2) What do students need to be able to do in order to demonstrate their understanding of the Standard?
For each Standard, mathematically proficient students are able to demonstrate their understanding by “communicating precisely by engaging in a discussion about their reasoning using appropriate mathematical language.”
3) How do each of these (#1 and #3) align to the Standard? Does one align to the Standard better than the other?
Both Internet-Based activities (#1 and #3) align to the Standard. #1 that asks “How many?” and #3 that asks “How many more?” Each of these correspond to the K.CC.5 Standard that states, “Count to answer “how many?” questions about as many as 20 things arranged in a line, a rectangular array, or a circle, or as many as 10 things in a scattered configuration; given a number from 1-20, count out that many objects.” This activity allows students to keep track of objects when counting in a scattered arrangement with up to 10 objects and up to 20 objects in a more specific pattern. Another Standard that is met in this activity is K.OA.4 which says, “For any number from 1 to 9, find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record the answer with a drawing or equation.” I do not think that one Standard aligns better than the other.
4) “Close to Ten,” Based on this game, how does it align to the Standard?
This game aligns to the Standard K.OA.3 that teaches students to “decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 5=2+3 and 5+4+1).” This game helps students gain a better understanding of part-whole relationships as they recognize that a set of objects can be broken down into smaller parts and still remain in the total amount.
5) If you were planning a 45-60 minute math lesson on the Standard above, think of the different types of activities that you read about.
K.OA.3 – “Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 5=2+3 and 5+4+1).”
- Motivation Activity: I would first start my math lesson based on the Standard above with a Motivational Activity! We would follow the model below by first working through these three problems together as a class to gain their attention, to prove how this activity is relevant to counting numbers and decomposing them, to give them confidence that they can succeed in our next activity, and give them the satisfaction or reward or successfully joining and combining these numbers in the scenarios below.
- Orientation Activity: For my Orientation Activity, I will have the students play a game called Make 10 Go Fish! The object of the game is to get two cards that total 10. This will help them see where they have been, where they are now, and where they are going with the decomposition and combining of numbers. Here are the directions to the game:
“Engage students in a discussion about the possible number combinations to make 10. After students have explored possible combinations, introduce them to Make 10 Go Fish.”
How to play: The object is to get two cards that total 10.
• Each player is dealt five cards. The rest of the cards are placed down in the center of the table.
• If you have any pairs of cards that total 10, put them down in front of you and replace those cards with cards from the deck.
• Take turns. On your turn, ask the other player for a card that will go with a card in your hand to make 10.
• If you get a card that makes 10, put the pair of cards down. Take another card from the deck. Your turn is over.
• If you do not get a card that makes 10, take the top card from the deck. Your turn is over. (Example: Player 1 “Do you have a 2 in your hand?” If player 2 has a 2 they give it to player 1. If they do not have a 2 they say “Go Fish!”)
- If the card you take from the deck makes 10 with a card in your hand, put the pair down and take another card. Your turn is over.
- 3 Application Activities: For my 3 Application Activities, I would use Lesson 4: One Less Dog from the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction page for Kindergarten Adding & Subtracting. From the “Elaborate” section of the lesson, the students will “spend the remainder of the lesson in independent work stations practicing concepts related to joining and number sense.” Students will be divided up into 5 stations with combinations of 3, 4, or 5 students per station. Below is an overview of each of the 5 stations:
Station 1: One Less Dog
Students will roll a number cube, build the number with counters and find one less than their number. No recording is needed at this station. Students continue this process.
Station 2: How Many in the Picture?
Students will select a Picture Card and recreate the picture with counters.
Students will create a story to match the Picture Card. Students will determine how many total counters they have. No recording is needed at this station. Students continue to select different story cards.
Station 3: One More Animal
Students will select a number card (0-5) and use that number as the start number in their story
problem. Students make that number using counters. From the start number, students will add one more counter and count the total. No recording is needed at this station. Students continue to select different number cards.
Station 4: Snap It
Students will make a train of 3, 4, or 5 cubes and hold it behind their back. Students will snap of a few cubes and count them while holding the rest behind their back. Students will figure out how many cubes are behind their back.
Station 5: Tile Pictures
Students will make a picture using 4, 5 or 6 tiles. Students will trace their picture onto paper and circle two groups of the tiles. For example, if a student uses 4 tiles they could circle a group of 3 and a group of 1, or they could circle 2 groups of 2 tiles. Students continue to make pictures and find combinations of the number.
- Information Activity: In the final Information Activity, students will understand and remember new ideas from the lesson. This will help them understand the relationships that exist among the decomposition of numbers.
Example: “Bobby Bear is missing 5 buttons on his jacket. How many ways can you use blue and red buttons to finish his jacket? Draw a picture of all your ideas.
Students could draw pictures of:
4 blue and 1 red button
3 blue and 2 red buttons
2 blue and 3 red buttons
1 blue and 4 red buttons